1 star anise = 1/2 tsp anise or fennel seed
3 inches cinnamon stick = 1 tsp ground
3 whole cloves = 1/4 tsp ground
1 garlic clove = 1/8 tsp ground
In most recipes, equivalent measures of curry powder are acceptable.
1 inch vanilla bean = 1 tsp extract
1 inch ginger = 1 tbsp grated or chopped
All conversions are subjective to different recipes and taste.